InStrain: The New Genetic Analysis Program that Detects Differences between Familial Microbial Germ Lines🦠🧬🧪
Previous technologies, such a 16s RNA, have been used as a means to analyze the biodiversity of the microbiome. The detection of genotypic and phenotypic variation among microbial cells is vital when diagnosing and treating most diseases. InStrain is a new genetic analysis program that uses previously obtained metagenomic data to detect phenotypic differences between microbial cell germ lines.
Researchers from TU Delft have created a synthetic chromosome in yeast. These artificial chromosomes can synchronize with the innate chromosomes of the yeast as well as provide a means to easily and safely incorporate new beneficial functions to the microbe.
Researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have confirmed the ability to sequence at Mars as well as near Europa and at lower g levels, demonstrating the functionality of updated chemistry and sequencing protocols under parabolic flight, thus revealing consistent performance across various g levels. The work strengthens the use case for nanopore sequencing in dynamic environments on Earth and in space, including as part of the search for nucleic-acid based life beyond Earth.
Researchers at TU Wien used artificial membrane along with DNA origami technique to be able to study the interaction between the T-cells and the antigen-presenting cells in detail. There was some evidence that the spatial distance between antigens plays an important role in T-cell activation. The researchers built a rectangular DNA platform to which one can fix an antigen. By cleverly designing single strands that only fit together in certain sections, they connected several double helices with each other and thus created complicated structures. This DNA rectangle was placed on the artificial membrane and it moved there like a raft. This technique is called DNA origami.
Why Elephants Rarely Get Cancer, and the Potential Mechanism that May be Key to Cancer Resistance 🧬🧪🦠
A new study from the University at Buffalo and University of California, Berkeley shows that elephants possess extra copies of a wide variety of genes associated with tumor suppression. Elephants have lots and lots of extra copies of tumor suppressor genes, and they all might contribute to cancer resistance. Though many elephant relatives also harbor extra copies of tumor suppressor genes, the scientists found that elephant genomes possess some unique duplications that may contribute to tumor suppression through genes involved in DNA repair; resistance to oxidative stress; cellular growth, aging and death.
Researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) identified a class of mutations that aid bacteria in developing resistance. While antibiotic resistance is a natural process, at times, and necessary for the survival of some bacteria, the misuse and overuse of antibiotics creates more of a danger of a large variety of diseases.