ISO 21457 Materials Selection And Corrosion Control For Oil And Pdf [UPD]
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ISO 21457 Materials Selection And Corrosion Control For Oil And Pdf
one of the important parts in the norsok m-001 and the iso 21457 standards is the materials selection and corrosion control for the offshore oil and gas industry. there are two parts for the materials selection and corrosion control for the offshore oil and gas industry. the first part is the general recommendations and the second part is the marine applications. part one consists of the general recommendations for equipment and materials used in oil and gas production, transport, storage, processing, and distribution of products from the wellhead to the refinery and production facilities. the recommendations are based on previous experiences, evaluation of materials and equipment, and the recommendations given in the norsok m-001 standard. the marine part of the standard consists of recommendations for marine structure, marine facilities, marine equipment, marine accessories, marine instruments and chemicals, etc. the marine part of the standard is similar to the general recommendations, but it is slightly different in the recommendations for corrosion control. the marine part of the standard deals with marine atmosphere, marine surface, marine subsea, marine services, and marine fluids. the standard also gives information about the marine atmosphere, marine surface and marine subsea conditions. most of the recommendations are based on the norsok m-001 standard, but the standard defines some additional recommendations for marine corrosion protection and corrosion control. for marine services, the standard gives information about marine atmosphere, marine surface, marine subsea and marine fluids. the marine atmosphere consists of marine atmosphere as a whole, marine atmosphere and gas, marine atmosphere and oil and gas, etc. the marine surface consists of marine surface as a whole, marine surface and gas, marine surface and oil and gas, etc. the marine subsea consists of marine subsea as a whole, marine subsea and gas, marine subsea and oil and gas, etc. the marine fluids consist of marine fluids as a whole, marine fluids and gas, marine fluids and oil and gas, etc. the marine fluids include seawater, brine, hydrocarbons, seawater, seawater containing gas, seawater containing oil and gas, seawater containing brine and gas, seawater containing brine and oil and gas, and brine, water and oil and gas. the standard also gives information about the marine fluids, seawater, seawater containing gas, seawater containing oil and gas, seawater containing brine and gas, seawater containing brine and oil and gas, and brine. for marine equipment, the standard gives information about marine atmosphere, marine surface, marine subsea, and marine fluids. for marine accessories, the standard gives information about marine atmosphere, marine surface, marine subsea, and marine fluids. for marine instruments, the standard gives information about marine atmosphere, marine surface, marine subsea, marine fluids, marine equipment, marine accessories, and marine instruments.
if the design is sound, then there are some basic guidelines on materials selection that can be used. the first thing to determine is the equipment and facility. this is determined by the application, the type of facility and the type of equipment. once this is determined, then the type of material, whether it is a passivated material, type of material that can be surface treated, etc. needs to be determined. this should be done to the extent that the material is in common use for the equipment and facility.
a few years ago, the older age of the existing equipment in the oil and gas industry showed up, so that there was a need for new ideas for corrosion resistant materials. also for other reasons, the ideas of corrosion resistance were starting to be used for more areas and parts of the industry. new technologies were being developed, which were not just new in the area of corrosion resistance, but also in the area of technology, metallurgy, or molding techniques.
the new ways of thinking, were soon to be used in the new technologies and this was showing up in new applications. the new ways of thinking brought new demands for the industry. the next areas for corrosion resistant materials were:
the new industries and new applications were using the new ways of thinking. new materials with new properties were now needed, but also new fabrication techniques. new materials with new properties were needed, such as:
the new ways of thinking about materials and corrosion can be exemplified by the example of a problem with a solution that was a challenge in the oil and gas industry. this was the challenge of leaking pipe joints: