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Feds ban hate against Muslim-Americans in new guidance on civil rights
Jonathan Van Maren
WASHINGTON, D.C. – The federal government wants to prevent civil rights violations against American Muslims and other religious minorities.
In guidance released Tuesday, the U.S. Department of Justice advises police to consider factors in deciding whether to make a criminal arrest or file a civil rights case against a suspect.
“The DOJ guidance makes clear that law enforcement must consider the totality of the circumstances when investigating and making arrests in connection with the potential violation of a person’s civil rights,” said Kevin Myers, public affairs officer at the Department of Justice Civil Rights Division.
This includes determining whether someone is or is not a religious minority, whether there is religious cohesiveness in a community and whether a group’s beliefs are strongly held, the statement said.
The guidance, part of the Justice Department’s efforts to prevent civil rights violations, is a modification of the agency’s longstanding policy on the subject, said Jonathan Blanks, a University of Baltimore law professor.
“This makes it very clear that a long line of case law, beginning with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and culminating in the Supreme Court’s 1989 decision in Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp., has created new standards for a number of civil rights prosecutions,” Blanks said.
Arlington Heights, Ill., challenged the constitutionality of a longstanding housing segregation law. The issue was whether the government had used race, religion or other categories when it passed the law.
The Supreme Court ultimately ruled that the city had not acted for impermissible reasons, and the act was found to be constitutional.
The Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993, enacted to clarify the government’s responsibility in preventing religious discrimination, said the government had to consider whether a law or policy might conflict with federal, state or local rules that “substantially burden a person’s exercise of religion.”
Lawmakers have also tried to restrict local ordinances that ban discrimination based on sexual orientation.
The government said this approach would help ensure that “civil rights laws prohibiting discrimination in employment, housing and public accommodations remain strong and effective.”Two phylum level phylogenies and a synapomorphic reversal characterize a cryptic marine mammal radiation.
Marine mammals (Cetacea) are an extensively diverse clade that is undergoing rapid diversification. However, little is known about the associated diversification dynamics, despite the importance of this knowledge for assessing the